Resale Price Maintenance
Antitrust Vertical Myopia: The Allure of High Prices, Arizona Law Review 50: 261-287 (2008)
|1889||Fowle v. Park, 131 U.S. 88 (1889)||The Supreme Court dismisses the argument that RPM agreements are unreasonable restraints of trade.|
|1902||E. Bement & Sons v. National Harrow Co., 186 U.S. 70 (1902)||The Supreme Court holds that RPM agreements related to patented products are legal, because the very object of intellectual property laws monopoly.|
|1908||Bobbs-Merrill Co. v. Straus, 210 U.S. 339 (1908)||The Supreme Court refuses to enforce a retail-price notice printed in the book, when the publisher and the retailer have no agreement. The Court chooses not to address the legality of RPM agreements.|
|1912||Henry v. A.B. Dick, 224 U.S. 1 (1912)||Patents convey the right to impose restrictions on the right to resale the patented items, so long as these restrictions are related only to the patented items.|
|1913||Bauer & Cie v. O’Donnell, 229 U.S. 1 (1913)||Selling below minimum prices stated in a patent license agreement does not constitute patent infringement.|
|1917||Straus v. Victor Talking Mach. Co., 243 U.S. 490 (1917)||The Supreme Court restates the per se prohibition against RPM in light of common confusions.|
|1918||Boston Store of Chicago v. American Graphophone Co., 246 U.S. 8 (1918)||The Supreme Court clarifies again the per se illegality of RPM.|
|1919||U.S. v. Colgate & Co., 250 U.S. 300 (1919)||Manufacturers may unilaterally refuse to deal with retailers that do not follow suggested retail pricing.|
|1926||United States v. General Electric Co., 272 U.S. 476 (1926)||
Manufacturers may fix retail prices on goods delivered to the retailers on consignment or sold by agents.
The Supreme Court upholds the right of a patent holder to limit the methods of resale and resale prices.
|1931||California’s Fair Trade Act, 1931 Cal. Stat. 278||Allowing RPM for branded goods in California|
|1933||Amendment to the California Fair Trade Act, 1933 Cal. Stat. 260||
Allowing RPM for all goods.
Sixteen states follow California: Arizona (1936), Illinois (1935), Iowa (1935), Kentucky (1936), Louisiana (1936), Maryland (1935), New Jersey (1935), New York (1935), Ohio (1935), Oklahoma (1936), Oregon (1935), Pennsylvania (1936), Rhode Island (1936), Virginia (1936), Washington (1935), and Wisconsin (1935)
|1936||Old Dearborn Distrib. Co. v. Seagram Distillers Corp., 299 U.S. 183 (1936)||The Supreme Court upholds the constitutionality of pro-RPM state statutes.|
|1942||U.S. v. Univis Lens Co., 316 U.S. 241 (1942)|
|1948||United States v. Paramount Pictures, Inc., 334 U.S. 131 (1948)||Copyrights do not convey the right to set resale prices.|
|1951||Schwegmann Bros. v. Calvert Distillers Corp, 341 U.S. 384 (1951)||state laws cannot extend the Miller-Tydings exemption to enforce RPM agreements against third parties.|
|1952||The McGuire Act, 66 Stat. 631 (1952)||Congress addresses Schwegmann Bros and extend the scope of the Miller-Tydings Act to enforcements of RPM agreements against third parties.|
|1964||Simpson v. Union Oil Co., 377 U.S. 13 (1964)||Consignment (narrowing GE).|
|1967||United States v. Arnold, Schwinn & Co., 388 U.S. 365 (1967)||The Supreme Court extends the per se prohibition to non-price vertical restraints, such as exclusive distribution territories.|
|1968||Albrecht v. Herald Co., 390 U.S. 145 (1968)||The Supreme Court holds that maximum RPM is per se illegal, like other forms of RPM.|
|1975||The Consumer Goods Pricing Act||Congress Repeals the Miller-Tydings and McGuire Acts.|
|1977||Continental T.V., Inc. v. GTE Sylvania Inc., 433 U.S. 36 (1977)||The Supreme Court overrules Arnold, Schwinn & Co. (1967), holding that such non-price vertical restraints would be reviewed under the rule of reason.|
|1980||California Liquor Dealers v. Midcal Aluminum, 445 U.S. 97 (1980).||The Supreme Court Reaffirms the RPM per se illegality rule.|
|1982||Rice v. Norman Williams, 458 U.S. 654 (1982)||The Supreme Court reaffirms the per se illegality rule.|
|1984||Monsanto Co. v. Spray-Rite Serv. Corp, 465 U.S. 752 (1984)||The Supreme Court reaffirms the per se illegality rule, despite the urging of the Solicitor General.|
|1988||Business Electronics Corp. v. Sharp Electronics Corp., 485 U.S. 717 (1988)||An agreement between a manufacturer and a retailer to terminate price-cutting retailer is lawful, so long as the parties do not set prices for the remaining retailer.|
|1997||State Oil Co. v. Khan, 522 U.S. 3 (1997)||The Supreme Court overrules Albrecht (1968), holding that maximum RPM should be examined under the rule of reason.|
|2007||Leegin Creative Leather Products, Inc. v. PSKS, Inc., 127 S.Ct. 2705 (2007)||The Supreme Court overrules Dr. Miles, holding that all RPM agreements should be examined under the rule of reason.|
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